• Yevhenii Alekseik КПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорського, НН ІАТЕ, Науково-дослідна (експериментальна) лабораторія процесів в енергетичному обладнанні, Ukraine
  • Olha Alekseik Igor Sikorsky KPI, Educational and Scientific Institute of Atomic and Thermal Energy, Atomic Energy Department, Ukraine



heat recovery, ventilation systems, heat exchanger, thermosyphon, heat pipe, pulsating heat pipe


Background. Heat exchangers-utilizers for recovery of ventilation air heat are widely used for increasing of buildings energy efficiency. Two-phase elements, such as: thermosyphons, heat pipes and pulsating heat pipes are applied to these heat exchangers for increasing of efficiency of heat transfer between hot and cold air. But such heat exchangers should have high temperature efficiency, enthalpy efficiency and energy efficiency at low aerodynamic drag. Moreover, working conditions of ventilation systems, such as: relatively low working temperatures and low temperature difference between hot and cold air, make it difficult to choose heat carriers for two-phase elements. Thus, it is necessary to solve a number of complex problems for designing of effective heat exchangers-utilizers based on two-phase elements.

Objective. To find out unresolved and understudied issues of designing of heat exchangers-utilizers based on two-phase elements for ventilation systems.

Methods. Analysis of described in literature designs, their characteristics and results of investigations.

Results. General features of two-phase elements based heat exchangers-utilizers designs and a number of issues which need further investigation were detected as a result of literature sources analysis.

Conclusions. Heat exchangers based on two-phase heat transfer elements have wide perspective of applying and provide full heat efficiency up to 85%. But there is a number of unsolved issues connected with: optimization of two-phase elements and heat exchangers design, ribbing optimization, investigation of heat transfer intensity and heat transfer coefficients, investigation of aerodynamic drag, condensate rejecting.


. V.I. Deshko, I.O. Sukhodub, Efficiency of heat utilization in ventilation systems, Kyiv, Ukraine: IESEM NTUU “KPI” (in Ukrainian), 2016.

. S.K. Kusakov, “Low potential heat sources and requirements for heat exchange equipment for energy efficient utilization of such heat”, (in Ukrainian), Intehrovani tekhnolohii ta enerhozberezhennia, no. 4, pp. 79–90, 2019, doi: 10.20998/2078-5364.2019.4.10.

. L.V. Didyk and M.V. Stepanov, “Calculation method of heat exchanger with elastic heat transfer surface for utilization of exhaust air heat”, (in Ukrainian), Ventyliatsiia, osvitlennia ta teplohazopostachannia, iss. 16, pp. 94–100, 2012.

. М. Kordyukov, V. Deshko, I. Sukhodub, “ Heat and mass transfer processes in air-to-air membrane recuperative heat exchanger in summer”, (in Ukrainian), Kholodylna tekhnika ta tekhnolohiia, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 24–31, Mar. 2014, doi: 10.15673/0453-8307.1/2014.32643.

. V.I. Deshko, I.O. Sukhodub, A.V. Popkov, “Energy balance of ventilation systems with utilization”, (in Ukrainian), Budivelni konstruktsii, iss. 80, pp. 73–77, 2014.

. M.V. Stepanov, V.H. Dziubenko, M.V. Shynkarenko, “Heat exchanger”, (in Ukrainian), UA Patent 65348 А, Mar. 15, 2004.

. M.V. Stepanov, L.V. Didyk, P.H. Berehova, “Investigation of heat transfer between air and elastic surface”, (in Ukrainian), Ventyliatsiia, osvitlennia ta teplohazopostachannia, iss. 11, pp. 67–71, 2007.

. S.Z. Polishhuk, E.G. Kushnir, I.Ju Lesnikova, V.O. Petrenko, Ju.D. Vasil’eva, E.A. Homenko, “Utilization of industrial exhaust heat and quality of air environment”, (in Russian), Stroitel’stvo. Materialovedenie. Mashinostroenie. Serija: Jenergetika, jekologija, komp'juternye tehnologii v stroitel'stve, iss. 76, pp. 212–220, 2014.

. Qi Xu, Saffa Riffat, Shihao Zhang, “Review of Heat Recovery Technologies for Building Applications”, Energies, vol. 12, iss. 7, Apr. 2019, Art. no. 1285, doi: 10.3390/en12071285.

. A. Mardiana-Idayu, S.B. Riffat, “Review on heat recovery technologies for building applications”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, iss. 2, pp. 1241–1255, Feb. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.09.026.

. D. O’Connor, J.K. Calautit, B.R. Hughes, “A Review of Heat Recovery Technology for Passive Ventilation Applications”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 54, pp. 1481–1493, Feb. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.039.

. E.A. Zender-Swiercz, “Review of Heat Recovery in Ventilation”, Energies, vol. 14, iss. 6, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 1759, doi: 10.3390/en14061759.

. P.M. Cuce, S. Riffat, “A comprehensive review of heat recovery systems for building applications”,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 47, pp. 665–682, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.087.

. W. Srimuang, P. Amatachaya, “A review of the applications of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, iss. 6, pp. 4303–4315, Aug. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.030.

. M. Muhsen, Yunting Ge, A. Karamallah, W. Mohammad, “Experimental Performance of R134a Filled Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger using Plain and Rifled Tubes”,” Elixir Thermal Engineering, vol. 93, pp. 39348–39359, Apr. 2016.

. Govinda Mahajan, Scott M. Thompson, Heejin Cho, “Experimental characterization of an n-pentane oscillating heat pipe for waste heat recovery in ventilation systems”, Heliyon, vol. 4, iss. 11, Nov. 2018, Art. no. e00922, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00922.

. J. Ramos, A. Chong, H. Jouhara, “Experimental and Numerical investigation of a cross flow air-to-water heat pipe-based heat exchanger used in waste heat recovery”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 102, pp. 1267–1281, Nov. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.06.100.

. H. Jouhara, R. Meskimmon, “An investigation into the use of water as working fluid in wraparound loop heat pipe heat exchanger for applications in energy efficient HVAC systems”, Energy, vol. 156, pp. 597–605, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1016/

. A. Burlacu et al., “Energy efficient heat pipe heat exchanger for waste heat recovery in buildings”,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 22, pp. 714–721, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2018.03.103.

. Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Nandy Putra, Ragil Sukarno, Muhammad Rifqi Audi, Fadhil Fuad Rachman, “Experimental Study on Utilization of Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger for Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning System in a Hospitals and its Techno-Economic Feasibility”, in AIP Conf. Proc. 2255, 2020, Paper no. 030067, doi: 10.1063/5.0014138.

. H. Jouhara et al., “Experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of an air to water multi-pass heat pipe-based heat exchanger”, Energy, vol. 219, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 119624, doi: 10.1016/

. Ragil Sukarno, Nandy Putra, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Fadhil Fuad Rachman, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, “Multi-stage heat pipe heat exchanger for improving energy efficiency of the HVAC system in a hospital operating room”, Int. J. Low-Carbon Technologies, vol. 16, iss 2, pp. 259–267, May 2021, doi: 10.1093/ijlct/ctaa048.

. Ragil Sukarno, Nandy Putra, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Fadhil Fuad Rachman, Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia, “Utilizing heat pipe heat exchanger to reduce the energy consumption of airborne infection isolation room HVAC system”, J. Building Engineering, vol. 35, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 102116, doi: 10.1016/j.jobe.2020.102116.

. Y.H. Diao, L. Liang, Y.M. Kang, Y.H. Zhao, Z.Y. Wang, T.T. Zhu “Experimental study on the heat recovery characteristic of a heat exchanger based on a flat micro-heat pipe array for the ventilation of residential buildings”,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 152, pp. 448–457, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.07.045.

. M.F. Remeli et al., “Experimental investigation of combined heat recovery and power generation using a heat pipe assisted thermoelectric generator system”, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 111, pp. 147–157, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.12.032.

. G. Mahajan, S.M. Thompson, H. Cho, “Energy and cost savings potential of oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery ventilation”, Energy Reports, vol. 3, pp. 46–53, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2016.12.002.

. G. Mahajan, H. Cho, A. Smith, S.M Thompson, “Experimental Analysis of Atypically Long Finned Oscillating Heat Pipe for Ventilation Waste Heat Recovery Application”, J. Therm. Sci., iss. 29, pp. 667–675, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11630-019-1178-5.

. Honghai Yang, Jun Wang, Ning Wang, Fengchang Yang, “Experimental study on a pulsating heat pipe heat exchanger for energy saving in air-conditioning system in summer”, Energy & Buildings, vol. 197, pp. 1–6, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.05.032.

. Y.H. Yau, “Application of a heat pipe heat exchanger to dehumidification enhancement in a HVAC system for tropical climates – a baseline performance characteristic study”,” Int. J. Thermal Sciences, vol. 46, iss. 2, pp. 164–171, Feb. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2006.02.006.

. Y.H. Yau, M. Ahmadzadehtalatapeh, “A review on the application of horizontal heat pipe heat exchangers in air conditioning systems in tropics”, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 30, iss. 2–3, pp. 77–84, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2009.07.011.

. Ehsan Firouzfar, Mohammad Soltanieh, S. Hossien Noie, M. Hassan Saidi, “Application of heat pipe heat exchangers in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems”, Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1900–1908, May 2011.

. M.G. Semena, A.N. Gershuni, V.K. Zaripov, Heat pipes with felt-metal capillary structures, Kyiv, USSR: Vyshcha shkola (in Russian), 1984.

. D.A. Reay, P.A. Kew, R.J. McGlen, Heat Pipes. Theory, Design and Applications, 6th ed. Oxford, U.K.: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014.

. Hongbin Ma Oscillating Heat Pipes, New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2015.

. V.Yu. Kravets, Heat transfer processes in miniature evaporation-condensation cooling systems, Kharkiv, Ukraine: FOP Brovin O.V. (in Ukrainian), 2018.

. M.K. Bezrodnyj, I.L. Pioro, T.O. Kostjuk, Transfer processes in two phase thermosyphon systems. Theory and practice, 2nd ed. Kyiv, Ukraine: Fakt (in Russian), 2005.

. E.S. Alekseik, “Influence of regime and geometric factors on heat-transfer characteristics of pulsating heat pipes”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Nucl. Power Plants and Eng. Thermal Phys., NTUU “KPI”, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2015.

. B. Kutnyi, B. Novakh, “Regenerative latent heat energy storage device for air supply ventilation unit”, (in Ukrainian), Zbirnyk naukovykh prats PoltNTU. Seriia: Haluzeve mashynobuduvannia, budivnytstvo, iss. 1, pp. 232–238, 2016.

. Ali Koç, Hüseyin Yağli, Hasan Huseyin Bilgic, Yıldız Koç, Ayşenur Özdemir, “Performance analysis of a novel organic fluid filled regenerative heat exchanger used heat recovery ventilation (OHeX-HRV) system”, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 41, Oct. 2020, Art. no 100787, doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2020.100787.