AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCT EXTRACTS AS SCALE INHIBITORS OF MILD STEEL IN TAP WATER
Keywords:scale inhibitors, mild steel, green inhibitor, scaling time
Background. In industrial heating processes, scaling is a major problem especially when natural water is used as heat carrier. The world economic losses due to scaling are estimated to constitute billions of dollars per year, the development of efficient, environmentally friendly and cheap approaches for reduction of scaling is an actual task nowadays. Utilization of agro-food wastes as a renewable source of scale inhibitors for water treatment of cooling water systems is a promising alternative to the existing approaches.
Objective. Three industry by-products, namely rapeseed pomace, sugar beet pulp and fodder radish cake, have been tested as scale inhibitors of mild steel in tap water.
Methods. Ethanol extracts were prepared by maceration and the electrochemical approach to study the scale formation was utilized, based on the measurement of oxygen reduction current during nucleation and formation of calcium carbonate in the presence of extracts. Scaling time, porosity and area density of the scale was determined and used to characterize the inhibition efficiency. Chemical compositions of extracts were analysed by GC-MS analysis (gas chromatography with mass selective detector by mass selective integration).
Results. The rapeseed pomace extract and fodder radish cake extract at the concentration of 10 mL/L appeared to be efficient scaling inhibitors. Sugar beet pulp extract increases the crystallization time, however the amount of deposited scale appeared to be the same as in the tap water.
Conclusions. The scale inhibition is caused mainly by the formation of adsorbed film on the scale nucleus that blocks the surface and prevent further crystal growth. Natural extracts are a promising source of scale inhibitors due to their low price, efficiency and environmental safety.
E. F. C. Somerscales, “Fundamentals of corrosion fouling”, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., vol. 14, no 4, pp. 335–355. May 1997. doi: 10.1016/s0894-1777(96)00136-7.
M. Chaussemier et al., “State of art of natural inhibitors of calcium carbonate scaling. A review article”, Desalination, vol. 356, pp. 47–55. Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.10.014.
G. S. Vasyliev and S. M. Vasylieva, “The Influence of Ultrasound on the Carbonate Cathodic Crystallization in Artificial Potable Water”, J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 164, no 4, pp. H250–H256, Mar. 2017. doi: 10.1149/2.0301706jes.
G. Vasyliev, S. Vasylieva, A. Novosad and Y. Gerasymenko, “Ultrasonic modification of carbonate scale electrochemically deposited in tap water”, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 48, pp. 57–63. Nov. 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.05.026.
Chen Wang, Deyi Zhu and Xikui Wang, “Low-phosphorus maleic acid and sodium ρ-styrenesulfonate copolymer as calcium carbonate scale inhibitor”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 2149–2155, Oct. 2009. doi: 10.1002/app.31300.
A. L. Kavitha, T. Vasudevan and H. G. Prabu, “Evaluation of synthesized antiscalants for cooling water system application”, Desalination, vol. 268, no. 1–3, pp. 38–45. Mar. 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2010.09.047.
V. Vorobyova, O. Chygyrynetś, M. Skiba, I. Kurmakova and O. Bondar, “Self-assembled monoterpenoid phenol as vapor phase atmospheric corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel”, Int. J. Corros. Scale Inhib., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 485–503, Nov. 2017. doi:10.17675/2305-6894-2017-6-4-8.
O. E. Chygyrynets’, V. I. Vorobyova, G. Y. Galchenko and I. G. Roslik, “Investigation of the efficiency of inhibitors of atmospheric corrosion”, Metall. Min. Ind., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 100–106, 2012.
O. E. Chyhyrynets’ and V. I. Vorob’iova, “Anticorrosion Properties of the Extract of Rapeseed Oil Cake as a Volatile Inhibitor of the Atmospheric Corrosion of Steel”, Mater. Sci., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 318–325, Nov. 2013. doi: 10.1007/s11003-013-9617-z.
V. I. Vorob’iova, O. E. Chyhyrynets and O.I. Vasyl’kevych, “Mechanism of Formation of the Protective Films on Steel by Volatile Compounds of Rapeseed Cake”, Mater. Sci., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 726–735, Mar. 2015. doi:10.1007/s11003-015-9778-z.
E. Chygyrynets’ and V. Vorobyova, “A study of rape-cake extract as eco-friendly vapor phase corrosion inhibitor”, Chem. Chem. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 235–242. Jun. 2014. doi: 10.23939/chcht08.02.235.
V. Vorobyova and M. Skіba, “Apricot cake extract as corrosion inhibitor of steel: chemical composition and anti-corrosion properties”, Chem. J. Mold., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 77–87. May 2019. doi: 10.19261/cjm.2018.525.
V. Vorobyova, O. Chygyrynets’, M. Skiba, I. Trus and S. Frolenkova, “Grape pomace extract as green vapor phase corrosion inhibitor”, Chem. Chem. Technol., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 410–418, Sep. 2018. doi: 10.23939/chcht12.03.410.
V. Vorobyova, M. Skiba and O. Chygyrynets’, “A novel eco-friendly vapor phase corrosion inhibitor of mild steel”, Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 137–147. Feb. 2019. doi: 10.1108/PRT-03-2018-0025.
V. I. Vorobyova, M. I. Skiba, A. S. Shakun and S. V. Nahirniak, “Relationship between the inhibition and antioxidant properties of the plant and biomass wastes extracts – A Review”, Int. J. Corros. Scale Inhib. vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 150–178. May 2019. doi: 10.17675/2305-6894-2019-8-2-1.
V. Vorobyova, O. Chygyrynets and M. Skiba, “4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde as a volatile inhibitor on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel”, J. Chem. Technol. Metall., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 336–345, 2017.
V. Vorobyova, O. Chygyrynets´ M. Skiba, T. Zhuk, І. Kurmakova and О. Bondar, “A comprehensive study of grape pomace extract and its active components as effective vapour phase corrosion inhibitor of mild steel”, Int. J. Corros. Scale Inhib., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 185–202, Jul. 2018. doi: 10.17675/2305-6894-2018-7-2-6.
Z. Mohammadi and M. Rahsepar, “The use of green Bistorta Officinalis extract for effective inhibition of corrosion and scale formation problems in cooling water system”, J. Alloys Compd., vol. 770, pp. 669–678, Jan. 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.08.198.
Z. Belarbi, B. Sotta, L. Makhloufi, B. Tribollet and J. Gamby, “Modelling of delay effect of calcium carbonate deposition kinetics on rotating disk electrode in the presence of green inhibitor”, Electrochim. Acta, vol. 189, pp. 118–127, Jan. 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.12.089.
H. Cheap-Charpentier et al., “Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions”, J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 443, pp. 43–49. Jun. 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.03.020.
D. E. Abd-El-Khalek, B. A. Abd-El-Nabey, M. A. Abdelkawi and S. R. Ramadan, “Investigation of a novel environmentally friendly inhibitor for calcium carbonate scaling in cooling water”, Desalination and Water Treat., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2870–2876, Feb. 2016. doi:10.1080/19443994.2014.987174.
M. Chaussemier et al., “State of art of natural inhibitors of calcium carbonate scaling. A review article”, Desalination, vol. 356, pp. 47–55, Jan. 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2014.10.014.
A. M. Abdel-Gaber, B. A. Abd-El-Nabey, E. Khamis and D. E. Abd-El-Khalek, “A natural extract as scale and corrosion inhibitor for steel surface in brine solution”, Desalination, vol. 278, no. 1–3, pp. 337–342, Sep. 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2011.05.048.
C. Deslouis, D. Festy, O. Gil, G. Rius, S. Touzain and B. Tribollet, “Characterization of calcareous deposits in artificial sea water by impedance techniques – I. Deposit of CaCO3 without Mg(OH)2”, Electrochim. Acta, vol. 43, no. 12–13, pp. 1891–1901, May 1998. doi: 10.1016/s0013-4686(97)00303-4.
A. Neville, T. Hodgkiess and A. P. Morizot, “Electrochemical assessment of calcium carbonate deposition using a rotating disc electrode (RDE)”, J. Appl. Electrochem., vol. 29, pp. 455–462, Apr. 1999.
Copyright (c) 2021 Georgii S. Vasyliev, Victoria I. Vorobyova, Yuriy S. Gerasymenko, Olena E. Chygyrynets
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under CC BY 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work