# TUNABLE POLARIZERS FOR X-BAND RADAR AND TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20535/kpisn.2021.2.236953## Keywords:

polarizer, waveguide with iris, waveguide with post, transfer matrix, scattering matrix, differential phase shift, crosspolar discrimination## Abstract

**Background. **Nowadays processing of signal polarizations is widely applied in modern information and telecommunication radio engineering systems for different purposes. Commonly polarization processing is carried out in polarization adaptive antenna systems. The essential elements of such systems are transformation devices for polarization processing. They perform the transformation of the types of polarization and separate the different types to isolated channels. The most simple, effective, technological and actual for analysis are polarizers based on square waveguides with irises and posts.

**Objective. **The purpose of this work is to improve the electromagnetic characteristics of an adjustable polarizer by creating a mathematical model of such device. The device must provide optimized polarization and matching characteristics.

**Methods. **The article presents a mathematical model of a waveguide polarizer with irises and posts by the decomposition method using wave transmission and scattering matrices. The developed model takes into account the influence of the polarizer design parameters on its characteristics.

**Results. **The article contains the results of calculations based on the developed mathematical model of the polarizer. In addition, the results of modelling of the device using the finite element method are presented for comparison. For the developed waveguide polarizer we have compared the polarization characteristics and the matching.

**Conclusions. **The created mathematical model allows us to effectively analyse the characteristics when the design parameters change. These parameters include the size of the wall of the square waveguide, the heights of the irises and posts, the distance between them, the thickness of the irises and posts. The developed polarizer is recommended for the application in modern telecommunication and radar systems.

## References

G. Virone et al., “Optimum-iris-set concept for waveguide polarizers,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 17, no. 3. pp. 202–204, 2007. doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2006.890474

M.J. Franco, “A high-performance dual-mode feed horn for parabolic reflectors with a stepped-septum polarizer in a circular waveguide,” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 142–146, 2011. doi: 10.1109/MAP.2011.6028434

X. Yu et al., “An improved type of TEn mode circular polarizer,” in 11th Int. Symp. on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory (ISAPE), Guilin, China, 2016, pp. 828–829. doi: 10.1109/ISAPE.2016.7834085

A.A Kirilenko et al., “A tunable compact polarizer in a circular waveguide,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 592–596, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2018.2881089

S.I. Piltyay, “Numerically effective basis functions in integral equation technique for sectoral coaxial ridged waveguides,” in 2012 Int. Conf. on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2012, pp. 492–495. doi: 10.1109/MMET.2012.6331195

I. Agnihotri and S.K. Sharma, “Design of a compact 3-D metal printed Ka-band waveguide polarizer,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2726–2730, 2019. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2019.2950312

G.Virone et al., “Combined-phase-shift waveguide polarizer,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 509–511, 2008. doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2008.2001005

F.F. Dubrovka and S.I. Piltyay, “A novel wideband coaxial polarizer,” in 2013 IX Int. Conf. on Antenna Theory and Techniques, Odesa, Ukraine, 2013, pp. 473–474. doi: 10.1109/ICATT.2013.6650816

A.A. Kirilenko et al., “Stepped approximation technique for designing coaxial waveguide polarizers,” in 2013 IX Int. Conf. on Antenna Theory and Techniques, Odesa, Ukraine, 2013. doi: 10.1109/ICATT.2013.6650815

F.F. Dubrovka and S.I. Piltyay, “Eigenmodes analysis of sectoral coaxial ridged waveguides by transverse field-matching technique. Part 1. Theory,” Visnyk NTUU KPI Seriia – Radiotekhnika, Radioaparatobuduvannia, vol. 54, pp. 13–23, 2013. doi: 10.20535/RADAP.2013.54.13-23

A.A. Kirilenko et al., “Design and optimization of broadband ridged coaxial waveguide polarizers,” in 2013 Int. Kharkov Symp. on Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2013, pp. 445–447. doi: 10.1109/MSMW.2013.6622082

S.I. Piltyay et al., “Waveguide iris polarizers for Ku-band satellite antenna feeds,” J. Nano- Electron. Physics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 05024–1, 2020. doi: 10.21272/jnep.12(5).05024

A.V. Bulashenko et al., “Analytical technique for iris polarizers development,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Problems of Infocommunications. Science and Technology (PIC S&T), Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 593-598. doi: 10.1109/PICST51311.2020.9467981

S.I. Piltay et al., “Compact polarizers for satellite information systems,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Problems of Infocommunications. Science and Technology (PIC S&T), Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 557-562. doi: 10.1109/PICST51311.2020.9467889

A. Chittora and S.V. Yadav, “A compact circular waveguide polarizer with higher order mode excitation,” in 2020 IEEE Int. Conf. on Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies (CONECCT), Bangalore, India, 2020. doi: 10.1109/CONECCT50063.2020.9198499

A.V. Bulashenko et al., “Optimization of a polarizer based on a square waveguide with irises,” Science-Based Technol., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 287–297, 2020. doi: 10.18372/2310-5461.47.14878

S.I Piltyay et al., “Compact Ku-band iris polarizers for satellite telecommunication systems,” Telecommun. Radio Eng., vol. 79, no. 19, pp. 1673–1690, 2020. doi: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v79i19.10

O.C. Zhu et al., “Reactance of posts in circular waveguide,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1685–1688, 2007. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.901605

L.P. Mospan et al., “Spectral properties of a rectangular wave guiding unit involving a pair of rectangular posts of equal heights,” Telecommun. Radio Eng., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2014. doi: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v73.i1.10

A. Bulashenko et al., “Mathematical modeling of iris-post sections for waveguide filters, phase shifters and polarizers,” in 2020 IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Advanced Trends in Information Theory, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 330–336. doi: 10.1109/ATIT50783.2020.9349321

S. Piltyay et al., “New tunable iris-post square waveguide polarizers for satellite information systems,” in 2020 IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Advanced Trends in Information Theory, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 342–348. doi: 10.1109/ATIT50783.2020.9349357

S. Piltyay et al., “Information resources economy in satellite systems based on new microwave polarizers with tunable posts,” Path of Sci., vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 5001–5010, 2020. doi: 10.22178/pos.64-6

B. Deutschmann and A.F. Jacob, “Broadband septum polarizer with triangular common port,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 693–700, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2019.2951138

F.F. Dubrovka et. al., “Optimum septum polarizer design for various fractional bandwidths,” Radioelectron. Commun. Syst., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2020.

A.A. Kirilenko et. al., “Compact septum polarizers with a circular output waveguide,” in The Fifth Int. Kharkov Symp. on Physics and Engineering of Microwaves, Milimeter, and Submilimeter Waves, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2004, pp. 686–688. doi: 10.1109/MSMW.2004.1346088

M. Mrnka et. al., “Antenna range illuminator based on a septum polarizer and dual-mode horn [measurements corner],” IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 82–86, 2016. doi: 10.1109/MAP.2016.2569444

F. Dubrovka et. al., “Circularly polarised X-band H11- and H21-modes antenna feed for monopulse autotracking ground station,” in 2020 IEEE Ukrainian Microwave Week (UkrMW), Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 196–202. doi: 10.1109/UkrMW49653.2020.9252600

X. Wang et. al., “Novel square/rectangle waveguide septum polarizer,” in 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), Nanjing, China, 2016. doi: 10.1109/ICUWB.2016.7790510

F. Dubrovka et. al., “Compact X-band stepped-thickness septum polarizer,” in 2020 IEEE Ukrainian Microwave Week (UkrMW), Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 135–138. doi: 10.1109/UkrMW49653.2020.9252583

A. Tribak et. al., “Ultra-broadband low axial ratio corrugated quad-ridge polarizer,” in European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), Rome, Italy, 2009, pp. 73–76. doi: 10.23919/EUMC.2009.5295927

Yu. Tikhov, “Comparison of two kinds of Ka-band circular polarisers for use in a gyro-travelling wave amplifier,” IET Microw., Antennas & Propag., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 2016. doi: 10.1049/IET-MAP.2015.0292

D.Yu. Kulik et. al., “Compact-size polarization rotators on the basis of irises with rectangular slots,” Telecommun. Radio Eng., vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2016. doi: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v75.i1.10

N. Kolmakova et. al., “Polarization plane rotation by arbitrary angle using D4 symmetrical structures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 429–435, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2509966

K. Al-Amoodi et. al., “A compact substrate integrated waveguide notched-septum polarizer for 5G mobile devices,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2517–2521, 2020. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2020.3038404

A.V. Bulashenko, “Evaluation of D2D communications in 5G networks,” Visnyk NTUU KPI Seriia – Radioteknika Radioaparatobuduvannia, no. 81, pp. 21–29, 2020. doi: 10.20535/RADAP.2020.81.21-29

A. Bulashenko et. al., “New traffic model of M2M Technology in 5G wireless sensor networks,” in 2020 IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Advanced Trends in Information Theory (ATIT), Kyiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 125–131. doi: 10.1109/ATIT50783.2020.9349305

S.I. Piltyay et. al., “Wireless sensor network connectivity in heterogeneous 5G mobile systems,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 625-630. doi: 10.1109/PICST51311.2020.9468073

A.V. Bulashenko et. al., “Energy efficiency of the D2D direct connection system in 5G networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 537-542. doi: 10.1109/PICST51311.2020.9468035

O. Myronchuk et. al., “Algorithm of channel frequency response estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems based on Kalman filter”, in 2020 IEEE 15th Int. Conf. on Advanced Trends in Radioelectronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering (TCSET), Lviv-Slavske, Ukraine, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TCSET49122.2020.235385

J.L. Cano and A. Mediavilla, “On the accurate full characterizations of septum polarizer through simple amplitude measurements in black-to-back configuration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 179–188, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2020.3020639

A.V. Bulashenko et. al., “Wave matrix technique for waveguide iris polarizers simulation. Theory,” J. Nano- Electron. Phys., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 06026–1, 2020. doi: 10.21272/jnep.12(6).06026

A.V. Bulashenko and S.I. Piltyay, “Equivalent microwave circuit technique for waveguide iris polarizers development,” Visnyk NTUU KPI Seriia – Radiotekhnika Radioaparatobuduvannia, vol. 83, pp. 17–28, 2020. doi: 10.20535/RADAP.2020.83.17-28

S.I. Piltyay et. al., “Analytical synthesis of waveguide iris polarizers,” Telecommun. Radio Eng., vol. 79, no. 18, pp. 1579–1597, 2020. doi: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v79.i18.10

R.E. Collin, Fondations for Microwave Engineering. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2001, 944 p.

L. Lewin, Theory of waveguides: Techniques for the solution of waveguide problems. Newnes-Butterworths, 1975, 346 p.

N. Marcuvitz, Waveguide handbook. Short Run Press Ltd., 1986. doi: 10.1049/PBEW021E

D.M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2012, 732 p.

J. Dobrowolski, Scattering parameters in RF and microwave circuit analysis and design. Artech, 2016.

S. Piltyay et. al., “FDTD and FEM simulation of microwave waveguide polarizers,” in 2020 IEEE 2nd Int. Conf. on Advanced Trends in Information Theory (ATIT), Kyiv, Ukraine, 2020, pp. 357–363. doi: 10.1109/ATIT50783.2020.9349339.

A.V. Bulashenko et. al., “Simulation of compact polarizers for satellite telecommunication systems with the account of thickness of irises,” KPI Sci. News, vol. 1, pp. 25–33, 2021. doi: 10.20535/kpisn.2021.1.231202

A.V. Bulashenko et. al., “Waveguide polarizer with three irises for antennas of satellite television systems,” Science-Based Technol., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 2021. doi: 10.18372/2310-5461.49.15290

## Downloads

## Published

## Issue

## Section

## License

Copyright (c) 2021 Andrew V. Bulashenko, Stepan I. Piltyay, Yelyzaveta I. Kalinichenko, Oleksandr V. Bulashenko

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under CC BY 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work