Valentyn V. Tsapenko, Mykola F. Tereshchenko, Grygorii S. Tymchik


Background. A leading place among diseases of the musculoskeletal system is occupied by various foot deformities. Biomechanics studying of the lower extremities in normal conditions and with various deformations is extremely necessary and very promising. The nature and peculiarities of move formation processes in children are not fully investigated. Domestic and foreign literature doesn’t pay enough attention to evaluating the parameters of the foot elasticity.

Objective. The aim of the paper is to evaluate standing and walking biomechanical features, gait cycle, elastic feet characteristics that can serve as a tool for the early diagnosis of impaired function of the foot in children.

Methods. In the study, the baropodometry method was used, which allows objectifying the studies taking into account static and dynamic components. During the study, the main spatial-temporal step cycle parameters were determined: cadence, double and lonely support periods, half-step and step length, step time and speed, claudication index, as well as load distribution and contact area between the feet, relative lengthening of the foot in dynamics. To evaluate the elastic foot characteristics, the elasticity coefficients and deformation, as well as the Young modulus, were calculated.

Results. Analysis of space-time characteristics of gait cycle of both subject groups showed a decrease in the step speed in the group of sick children, an increase in the step time, a significant decrease in cadence with an increase in the step length and a decrease in the double support time with a significant increase in the single support time. Analysis of the foot elastics properties at both groups of subjects showed a significant increase in the coefficient of elasticity and Young modulus in the group of healthy children compared with the other group while simultaneously reducing the deformation coefficient of the foot in the healthy group.

Conclusions. It is discovered that foot elastic properties and gait cycle biomechanical parameters evaluation can be successfully used for foot condition monitoring, establishing the diagnosis and the effectiveness of various methods of treating flat-valgus foot deformity in children.


Foot; Gait cycle; Biomechanical parameters; Elastic properties; Plane-valgus deformation


K. Vonsevych et al., “Information measuring system of myograph of bionic limb prosthesis”, Perspect. Technol. Devices, vol. 10, pp. 32–37, 2017.

K. Vonsevych et al., “Evaluation of electromyogram time characteristics of the wrist functional movements for intuitive control of bionic prosthesis”, Naukovi Visti NTUU KPI, no. 1, pp. 45–53, 2018. doi: 10.20535/1810-0546.2018.1.115941

M. Kalinina et al., “Functional methods of research of the foot in modern medical practice”, Sovremennyie Problemyi Nauki i Obrazovaniya, no. 3, 2015.

V. Tsapenko and N. Tereshchenko, “Method of investigation of biomechanical parameters of the human foot”, Vcheni Zapiski Tavriyskogo Natsionalnogo Universitetu Imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. Ser. Tehnichni Nauki, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 51–59, 2018.

A. Perepelkin et al., “Research of resilient properties of the human foot”, Rossiyskiy Zhurnal Biomehaniki, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 381–388, 2014.

V. Kashuba and K. Sergienko, “Technology of the biomechanical control of a condition of the human foot support-spring function”, in Proc. I Int. Sci. Pract. Conf. Biomechanics of Human Foot, Grodno, Republic of Belarus, July 18–19, 2008, pp. 32–34.

Private Anatomy. Bones Teaching – Osteology [Online]. Available:­mija_mixai­lov_t1&me­nu=Ana­tomija_mixailov_t1&page=7

B. Minasov et al., “Evaluation of static and dynamic biomechanical parameters of the lower extremities in normal and dege­nerative-destructive disorders of the feet”, Meditsinskiy Vestnik Bashkortostana, pp. 62–66, 2011.

А. Platonov et al., “Biomechatronic components of the human foot stimulator”, in Preprints of M.V. Keldysh IPM. Moscow, Russia, 2011, pp. 1–32.

P. Kennedy and T. Inglis, “Distribution and behaviour of glabrous cutaneous receptors in the human foot sole”, J. Physiol., no. 538, pp. 995–1002, 2002. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2001.013087

A. Vitenson et al., “Peculiarities of biomechanical structure of walking of healthy children of different age groups”, Rossiyskiy Zhurnal Biomehaniki, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 78–93, 2013. doi: 10.15593/RZhBiomeh/2016.2.05

L. Goncharova and O. Vorontsova, “Kinesimetry research in children podiatry”, Estestvennyie Nauki, no. 2, pp. 51–56, 2015.

V. Dotsenko and N. Titarenko, “Objective instrumental criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of programmable functional electromyostimulation in walking in patients with orthopedic and neurological disorders”, Zhurnal Mezhdunarodnoy Medit­sinyi, no. 2, pp. 51–54, 2017.

M. Makarova and M. Konyuhov, “Diseases and injuries of the lower extremities in children. Flat feet in children”, in Collection of scientific papers of the GI Turner Research Children's Orthopedic Institute. Leningrad, Russia, 1990, pp. 91–97.

P. Levinger et al., “A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model”, Gait & Posture, no. 32, pp. 519–523, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.07.013

D. Neumann, Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System: Foundations for Rehabilitation, 3rd ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 2016, 784 p.

Y. Shin et al., “Lower extremity kinematics in children with and without flexible flatfoot: a comparative study”, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 13, p. 31, 2012. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-13-31

C. Vaughan et al., Dynamics of Human Gait, 2nd ed. Cape Town, South Africa: Kiboho Publishers, 1999, 145 p.

M. Whittel, Gait Analysis an Introduction. Philadelphia: Elsevier Ltd, 2007, 255 p. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7506-8883-3.X5001-6

O. Vorontsova et al., “The main features of gait in children with planovalgus deformity”, Astrahanskiy Meditsinskiy Zhurnal, pp. 51–56, 2017.

V. Tsapenko and N. Tereshchenko, “Method of study of spatial parameters of the human foot”, in Proc. XI Int. Sci. Tech. Conf. Integrated Intellectual Robotechnical Complexes (IIRTC-2018), Kyiv, Ukraine, May 22–23, 2018, pp. 157–159.

V. Tsapenko et al., “Complex emitter of ultratonotherapy”, in Proc. VIII Int. Sci. Tech. Conf. Instrument Making 2015, Minsk, Republic of Belarus, November 25–27, 2015, pp. 158–159.

V. Tsapenko and N. Tereshchenko, “Digital biometric system of the study of pathological conditions of the foot”, in Proc. Int. Sci. Tech. Conf. Actual Problems of Automation and Instrumentation, Kharkov, Ukraine, December 07–08, 2017, pp. 89–90, 2017.

G. Tymchik et al., “Investigation thermal conductivity of biological materials by direct heating hermistor method”, in Proc. 2018 IEEE 38th Int. Conf. Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO), Kyiv, Ukraine, April 24, 2018, pp. 429–434. doi: 10.1109/ELNANO.2018.8477460

V. Tsapenko et al., “Research conductivity of biological tissue”, Bulletin of National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”. Ser. Instrument Making, no. 52, pp. 126–131, 2017. doi: 10.20535/1970.53(1).2017.106807

GOST Style Citations


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.